Tuesday, November 3, 2009

RETOUCHING AND TRANSFORMING

The retouch and transform features in Adobe® Photoshop® CS3 let you alter your images to accomplish a variety of tasks—to improve a composition, correct distortions or flaws, creatively manipulate picture elements, add or remove items, sharpen or blur, or merge multiple images into a panorama. The Vanishing Point feature lets you retouch and paint according to the perspective of an image. The Adobe® Photoshop® CS3 Extended version of Vanishing Point also lets you make measurements of items in an image and export the measurements along with geometric information and textures for use in 3D applications.

Crop images

Cropping is the process of removing portions of an image to create focus or strengthen the composition. You can crop an image using the Crop tool and the Crop command. You can also trim pixels using the Crop And Straighten and the Trim commands.


Using the Crop tool

Transform perspective while cropping
The Crop tool has an option that lets you transform the perspective in an image. This is very useful when working with images that contain keystone distortion. Keystone distortion occurs when an object is photographed from an angle rather than from a straight on view. For example, if you take a picture of a tall building from ground level, the edges of the building appear closer to each other at the top than they do at the bottom.


Steps to transform perspective
A. Draw initial cropping marquee.
B. Adjust cropping marquee to match the object’s edges.
C. Extend the cropping bounds.
D. Final image.

1. Select the Crop tool and set the crop mode.
2. Drag the cropping marquee around an object that was rectangular in the original scene (although it doesn’t appear rectangular in the image). You’ll use the edges of this object to define the perspective in the image. The marquee doesn’t have to be precise—you’ll adjust it later.
Important: You must select an object that was rectangular in the original scene or Photoshop might not produce the perspective transformation you expected.

3. Select Perspective in the options bar, and set the other options as desired.
4. Move the corner handles of the cropping marquee to match the object’s edges. This defines the perspective in the image, so it is important to precisely match the object’s edges.
5. Drag the side handles to extend the cropping bounds while preserving the perspective.
6. Do not move the center point of the cropping marquee. The center point needs to be in its original position in order to perform perspective correction.
7. Do one of the following:
  • Press Enter (Windows) or Return (Mac OS), click the Commit button in the options bar, or double-click inside the cropping marquee.
  • To cancel the cropping operation, press Esc or click the Cancel button in the options bar.
Crop and Straighten photos
You can place several photos on your scanner and scan them in one pass, which creates a single image file. The Crop and Straighten Photos command is an automated feature that can create separate image files from the multiple-image scan.

For best results, you should keep 1/8 inch between the images in your scan, and the background (typically the scanner bed) should be a uniform color with little noise. The Crop and Straighten Photos command works best on images with clearly delineated outlines. If the Crop and Straighten Photos command cannot properly process the image file, use the Crop tool.

1. Open the scanned file that contains the images you want to separate.
2. Select the layer that contains the images.
3. (Optional) Draw a selection around the images you want to process.
4. This is useful if you don’t want to process all the images in the scan file.
5. Choose File > Automate > Crop And Straighten Photos. The scanned images are processed, and then each image opens in its own window.

Rotate or flip an entire image
The Rotate Canvas commands let you rotate or flip an entire image. The commands do not work on individual layers or parts of layers, paths, or selection borders. If you want to rotate a selection or layer, use the Transform or Free Transform commands.

Rotating images
A. Flip Horizontal
B. Original image
C. Flip Vertical
D. Rotate 90° CCW
E. Rotate 180°
F. Rotate 90° CW

Choose Image > Rotate Canvas, and choose one of the following commands from the submenu:

180°
Rotates the image by a half-turn.
90° CW
Rotates the image clockwise by a quarter-turn.
90° CCW
Rotates the image counterclockwise by a quarter-turn.
Arbitrary
Rotates the image by the angle you specify. If you choose this option, enter an angle between 359.99 and 359.99 in the angle text box. (In Photoshop, you can select CW or CCW to rotate clockwise or counterclockwise.) Then click OK.

Retouch with the Clone Stamp tool
The Clone Stamp tool paints one part of an image over another part of the same image or over another part of any open document that has the same color mode. You can also paint part of one layer over another layer. The Clone Stamp tool is useful for duplicating objects or removing a defect in an image.

(Photoshop Extended) You can also use the Clone Stamp tool to paint content on video or animation frames.

To use the Clone Stamp tool, you set a sampling point on the area you want to copy (clone) the pixels from and paint over another area. To paint with the most current sampling point whenever you stop and resume painting, select the Aligned option. Deselect the Aligned option to paint starting from the initial sampling point no matter how many times you stop and resume painting.

You can use any brush tip with the Clone Stamp tool, which gives you precise control over the size of the clone area. You can also use opacity and flow settings to control how paint will be applied to the cloned area.


Altering an image with the Clone Stamp tool

1. Select the Clone Stamp tool .
2. Choose a brush tip and set brush options for the blending mode, opacity, and flow in the options bar.
3. To specify how you want to align the sampled pixels and how to sample data from the layers in your document, set any of the following in the options bar:

Aligned
Samples pixels continuously, without losing the current sampling point, even if you release the mouse button. Deselect Aligned to continue to use the sampled pixels from the initial sampling point each time you stop and resume painting.
Sample
Samples data from the layers you specify. To sample from the active layer and visible layers below it, choose Current And Below. To sample only from the active layer, choose Current Layer. To sample from all visible layers, choose All Layers. To sample from all visible layers except adjustment layers, choose All Layers and click the Ignore Adjustment Layers icon to the right of the Sample pop up menu.
4. Set the sampling point by positioning the pointer in any open image and Alt-clicking (Windows) or Option-clicking (Mac OS).
5. (Optional) In the Clone Source palette, click a clone source button and set an additional sampling point.
6. You can set up to five different sampling sources. The Clone Source palette saves the sampled sources until you close the document.
7. (Optional) To select the sampled source you want, click a clone source button in the Clone Source palette.
8. (Optional) Do any of the following in the Clone Source palette:
  • To scale or rotate the source that you’re cloning, enter a value for W (width), H (height), or the rotation in degrees .
  • To show an overlay of the source that you’re cloning, select Show Overlay and specify the overlay options.
9. Drag over the area of the image you want to correct.

Set sample sources for cloning and healing
Using the Clone Stamp or Healing Brush tool, you can sample sources in the current document or any open document in Photoshop.

(Photoshop Extended) When cloning video or animation, you can set sampling points in the current frame you’re painting or sample sources in a different frame, even if the frame is in a different video layer or in a different open document.

You can set up to five different sampling sources at a time in the Clone Source palette. The Clone Source palette saves the sampling sources until you close the document.

1. (Photoshop Extended only) To clone video or animation frames, open the Animation palette (if you’re not cloning video or animation frames, skip to step 2). Select the timeline animation option and move the current-time indicator to the frame with the source you want to sample.
2. To set the sampling point, select the Clone Stamp tool and Alt-click (Windows) or Option-click (Mac OS) in any open document window.
3. (Optional) To set another sampling point, click a different Clone Source button in the Clone Source palette.
4. You can change the sampling source for a Clone Source button by setting a different sampling point.

Retouch with the Healing Brush tool
The Healing Brush tool lets you correct imperfections, causing them to disappear into the surrounding image. Like the cloning tools, you use the Healing Brush tool to paint with sampled pixels from an image or pattern. However, the Healing Brush tool also matches the texture, lighting, transparency, and shading of the sampled pixels to the pixels being healed. As a result, the repaired pixels blend seamlessly into the rest of the image.

(Photoshop Extended) The Healing Brush tool can be applied to video or animation frames.


Sampled pixels and healed image
1. Select the Healing Brush tool .
2. Click the brush sample in the options bar and set brush options in the pop up palette:

If you’re using a pressure-sensitive digitizing tablet, choose an option from the Size menu to vary the size of the healing brush over the course of a stroke. Choose Pen Pressure to base the variation on the pen pressure. Choose Stylus Wheel to base the variation on the position of the pen thumbwheel. Choose Off if you don’t want to vary the size.
Mode
Specifies the blending mode. Choose Replace to preserve noise, film grain, and texture at the edges of the brush stroke when using a soft edge brush.
Source
Specifies the source to use for repairing pixels. Sampled to use pixels from the current image, or Pattern to use pixels from a pattern. If you chose Pattern, select a pattern from the Pattern pop up palette.
Aligned
Samples pixels continuously, without losing the current sampling point, even if you release the mouse button. Deselect Aligned to continue to use the sampled pixels from the initial sampling point each time you stop and resume painting.
Sample
Samples data from the layers you specify. To sample from the active layer and visible layers below it, choose Current And Below. To sample only from the active layer, choose Current Layer. To sample from all visible layers, choose All Layers. To sample from all visible layers except adjustment layers, choose All Layers and click the Ignore Adjustment Layers icon to the right of the Sample pop up menu.
3. Set the sampling point by positioning the pointer over an area of the image and Alt-clicking (Windows) or Option-clicking (Mac OS).
4. Note: If you are sampling from one image and applying to another, both images must be in the same color mode unless one of the images is in Grayscale mode.
5. (Optional) In the Clone Source palette, click a clone source button and set an additional sampling point.
6. You can set up to 5 different sampling sources. The Clone Source palette remembers the sampled sources until you close the document you’re editing.
7. (Optional) In the Clone Source palette, click a clone source button to select the sampled source you want.
8. (Optional) Do any of the following in the Clone Source palette:
  • To scale or rotate the source that you’re cloning, enter a value for W (width), H (height), or the rotation in degrees .
  • To show an overlay of the source that you’re cloning, select Show Overlay and specify the overlay options.
9. Drag in the image. The sampled pixels are melded with the existing pixels each time you release the mouse button. Look in the status bar to view the status of the melding process.

If there is a strong contrast at the edges of the area you want to heal, make a selection before you use the Healing Brush tool. The selection should be bigger than the area you want to heal but should precisely follow the boundary of contrasting pixels. When you paint with the Healing Brush tool, the selection prevents colors from bleeding in from the outside.

Retouch with the Spot Healing Brush tool
The Spot Healing Brush tool quickly removes blemishes and other imperfections in your photos. The Spot Healing Brush works similarly to the Healing Brush: it paints with sampled pixels from an image or pattern and matches the texture, lighting, transparency, and shading of the sampled pixels to the pixels being healed. Unlike the Healing Brush, the Spot Healing Brush doesn’t require you to specify a sample spot. The Spot Healing Brush automatically samples from around the retouched area.

Using the Spot Healing Brush to remove a blemish
If you need to retouch a large area or need more control over the source sampling, you can use the Healing Brush instead of the Spot Healing Brush.

1. Select the Spot Healing Brush tool from the toolbox. If necessary, click either the Healing Brush tool, Patch tool, or Red Eye tool to show the hidden tools and make your selection.
2. Choose a brush size in the options bar. A brush that is slightly larger than the area you want to fix works best so that you can cover the entire area with one click.
3. (Optional) Choose a blending mode from the Mode menu in the options bar. Choose Replace to preserve noise, film grain, and texture at the edges of the brush stroke when using a soft edge brush.
4. Choose a Type option in the options bar:
Proximity Match
Uses the pixels around the edge of the selection to find an image area to use as a patch for the selected area. If this option doesn’t provide a satisfactory fix, undo the fix and try the Create Texture option.
Create Texture
Uses all the pixels in the selection to create a texture with which to fix the area. If the texture doesn’t work, try dragging through the area a second time.
5. Select Use All Layers in the options bar to sample data from all visible layers. Deselect Use All Layers to sample only from the active layer.
6. Click the area you want to fix, or click and drag to smooth over imperfections in a larger area.

Patch an area
The Patch tool lets you repair a selected area with pixels from another area or a pattern. Like the Healing Brush tool, the Patch tool matches the texture, lighting, and shading of the sampled pixels to the source pixels. You can also use the Patch tool to clone isolated areas of an image. The Patch tool works with 8 bits or 16 bits-per-channel images.

When repairing with pixels from the image, select a small area to produce the best result.



Replace color in image areas
The Color Replacement tool simplifies replacing specific colors in your image. You can paint over a targeted color with a corrective color. The Color Replacement tool doesn’t work in images in Bitmap, Indexed, or Multichannel color modes.

1. Select the Color Replacement tool .
2. Choose a brush tip in the options bar. Generally, you should keep the blending mode set to Color.
3. For the Sampling option, choose one of the following:
Continuous - Samples colors continuously as you drag.
Once - Replaces the targeted color only in areas containing the color that you first click
Background Swatch - Replaces only areas containing the current background color.

4. For the Limits option, select one of the following:
Discontiguous
Replaces the sampled color wherever it occurs under the pointer.
Contiguous
Replaces colors that are contiguous with the color immediately under the pointer
Find Edges
Replaces connected areas containing the sampled color while better preserving the sharpness of shape edges.
5. For tolerance, enter a percentage value (ranging from 0 to 255) or drag the slider. Choose a low percentage to replace colors very similar to the pixel you click, or raise the percentage to replace a broader range of colors.
6. To define a smooth edge in the corrected areas, select Anti-aliased.
7. Choose a foreground color to replace the unwanted color.
8. Click the color you want to replace in the image.
9. Drag in the image to replace the targeted color.

Smudge image areas

The Smudge tool simulates the effect you see when you drag a finger through wet paint. The tool picks up color where the stroke begins and pushes it in the direction you drag.

1. Select the Smudge tool .
2. Choose a brush tip and options for the blending mode in the options bar.
3. Select Use All Layers in the options bar to smudge using color data from all visible layers. If this is deselected, the Smudge tool uses colors from only the active layer.
4. Select Finger Painting in the options bar to smudge using the foreground color at the beginning of each stroke. If this is deselected, the Smudge tool uses the color under the pointer at the beginning of each stroke.
5. Drag in the image to smudge the pixels.

Press Alt (Windows) or Option (Mac OS) as you drag with the Smudge tool to use the Finger Painting option.

Blur image areas
The Blur tool softens hard edges or reduces detail in an image. The more you paint over an area with the tool, the blurrier it becomes.

1. Select the Blur tool .
2. Do the following in the options bar:
? Choose a brush tip and set options for the blending mode and strength in the options bar.
? Select Use All Layers in the options bar to blur using data from all visible layers. If this is deselected, the tool uses data from only the active layer.
3. Drag over the part of the image you want to blur.

Sharpen image areas
The Sharpen tool increases contrast along edges to increase apparent sharpness. The more you paint over an area with the tool, the sharpen effect increases.

1. Select the Sharpen tool .
2. Do the following in the options bar:
  • Choose a brush tip and set options for the blending mode and strength in the options bar.
  • Select Use All Layers in the options bar to sharpen using data from all visible layers. If this is deselected, the tool uses data from only the active layer.
3. Drag over the part of the image you want to sharpen.

Dodge or burn areas
Used to lighten or darken areas of the image, the Dodge tool and the Burn tool are based on a traditional photographer’s technique for regulating exposure on specific areas of a print. Photographers hold back light to lighten an area on the print (dodging) or increase the exposure to darken areas on a print (burning). The more you paint over an area with the Dodge or Burn tool, the lighter or darker it becomes.

1. Select the Dodge tool or the Burn tool .
2. Choose a brush tip and set brush options in the options bar.
3. In the options bar, select one of the following:
  • Midtones to change the middle range of grays
  • Shadows to change the dark areas
  • Highlights to change the light areas
4. Specify the exposure for the Dodge tool or the Burn tool.
5. Click the airbrush button to use the brush as an airbrush. Alternatively, select the Airbrush option in the Brushes palette.
6. Drag over the part of the image you want to lighten or darken.

Adjust color saturation in image areas
The Sponge tool subtly changes the color saturation of an area. When an image is in Grayscale mode, the tool increases or decreases contrast by moving gray levels away from or toward the middle gray.

1. Select the Sponge tool .
2. Choose a brush tip and set brush options in the options bar.
3. In the options bar, select the way you want to change the color.
? Saturate to intensify the color’s saturation
? Desaturate to dilute the color’s saturation
4. Specify the flow for the Sponge tool.
5. Drag over the part of the image you want to modify.

RETOUCHING AND TRANSFORMING

RETOUCHING AND TRANSFORMING
Crop images
Transform perspective while cropping
Crop and Straighten photos
Rotate or flip an entire image
Retouch with the Clone Stamp tool
Set sample sources for cloning and healing
Retouch with the Healing Brush tool
Retouch with the Spot Healing Brush tool
Patch an area
Replace color in image areas
Smudge image areas
Blur image areas
Sharpen image areas
Dodge or burn areas
Adjust color saturation in image areas

DISTORTION TOOLS
Distort an image
About selecting pixels
Select, deselect, and reselect pixels
Select with the marquee tools
Select with the Lasso tool
Select with the Polygonal Lasso tool
Select with the Magnetic Lasso tool
Select with the Quick Selection tool
Select with the Magic Wand tool
Select a color range
Move, hide, or invert a selection
Adjust selections manually
Expand or contract a selection by a specific number of pixels
Create a selection around a selection border
Expand a selection to include areas with similar color
Clean up stray pixels in a color-based selection
Move a selection
Copy selections
Copy between applications
Extract an object from its background

ABOUT MASKS AND ALPHA CHANNELS
Create a temporary quick mask
Change Quick Mask options
Save and load selections

Sunday, November 1, 2009

LAYERS

Layers are the building blocks of many image creation workflows. You may not need to work with layers if you are doing simple image adjustments, but layers help you work efficiently and are essential to most nondestructive image editing.

About layers
Photoshop layers are like sheets of stacked acetate. You can see through transparent areas of a layer to the layers below. You move a layer to position the content on the layer, like sliding a sheet of acetate in a stack. You can also change the opacity of a layer to make content partially transparent.

Transparent areas on a layer let you see layers below.

You use layers to perform tasks such as compositing multiple images, adding text to an image, or adding vector graphic shapes. You can apply a layer style to add a special effect such as a drop shadow or a glow.

Work nondestructively
Sometimes layers don’t contain any apparent content. For example, an adjustment layer holds color or tonal adjustments that affect the layers below it. Rather than edit image pixels directly, you can edit an adjustment layer and leave the underlying pixels unchanged.

A special type of layer, called a Smart Object, contains one or more layers of content. You can transform (scale, skew, or reshape) a Smart Object without directly editing image pixels. Or, you can edit the Smart Object as a separate image even after placing it in a Photoshop image. Smart Objects can also contain smart filter effects, which allow you to apply filters nondestructively to images so that you can later tweak or remove the filter effect.
Organize layers
A new image has a single layer. The number of additional layers, layer effects, and layer sets you can add to an image is limited only by your computer’s memory. You work with layers in the Layers palette. Layer groups help you organize and manage layers. You can use groups to arrange your layers in a logical order and to reduce clutter in the Layers palette. You can nest groups within other groups. You can also use groups to apply attributes and masks to multiple layers simultaneously.

Layers palette overview
The Layers palette lists all layers, layer groups, and layer effects in an image. You can use the Layers palette to show and hide layers, create new layers, and work with groups of layers. You can access additional commands and options in the Layers palette menu.


Photoshop Layers palette
A. Layers palette menu. B. Layer Group. C. Layer. D. Expand/Collapse Layer effects. E. Layer effect. F. Layer thumbnail.
Convert background and layers
When you create a new image with a white background or a colored background, the bottommost image in the Layers palette is called Background. An image can have only one background layer. You cannot change the stacking order of a background layer, its blending mode, or its opacity. However, you can convert a background into a regular layer, and then change any of these attributes.

When you create a new image with transparent content, the image does not have a background layer. The bottommost layer is not constrained like the background layer; you can move it anywhere in the Layers palette and change its opacity and blending mode.

Create layers and groups
A new layer appears either above the selected layer or within the selected group in the Layers palette.

Duplicate layers

You can duplicate layers within an image or into another or a new image.

Show or hide a layer, group, or style
Do one of the following in the Layers palette:
  • Click the eye icon next to a layer, group, or layer effect to hide its content in the document window. Click in the column again to redisplay the content. To view the eye icon for styles and effects, click the Reveal Effects In Palette icon .
  • Choose Show Layers or Hide Layers from the Layers menu.
  • Alt-click (Windows) or Option-click (Mac OS) an eye icon to display only the contents of that layer or group. Photoshop remembers the visibility states of all layers before hiding them. If you don’t change the visibility of any other layer, Alt-clicking (Windows) or Option-clicking (Mac OS) the same eye icon restores the original visibility settings.
  • Drag through the eye column to change the visibility of multiple items in the Layers palette.
Note: Only visible layers are printed.

View layers and groups within a group
Do one of the following to open the group:
  • Click the triangle to the left of the folder icon.
  • Right-click (Windows) or Control-click (Mac OS) the triangle to the left of the folder icon and choose Open This Group.
  • Alt-click (Windows) or Option-click (Mac OS) the triangle to open or close a group and the groups nested within it.
Sample from all visible layers
The default behavior of the Magic Wand, Smudge, Blur, Sharpen, Paint Bucket, Clone Stamp, and Healing Brush tools is to sample color only from pixels on the active layer. This means you can smudge or sample in a single layer.

To smudge or sample pixels from all visible layers with these tools, select Use All Layers from the options bar.

Change transparency preferences

  • In Windows, choose Edit > Preferences > Transparency & Gamut; in Mac OS, choose Photoshop > Preferences > Transparency & Gamut.
  • Choose a size and color for the transparency checkerboard, or choose None for Grid Size to hide the transparency checkerboard.
  • Click OK.
Select layers
You can select one or more layers to work on them. For some activities, such as painting or making color and tone adjustments, you can work on only one layer at a time. A single selected layer is called the active layer. The name of the active layer appears in the title bar of the document window.

For other activities, such as moving, aligning, transforming, or applying styles from the Styles palette, you can select and work on multiple layers at a time. You can select layers in the Layers palette or with the Move tool.

You can also link layers. Unlike multiple layers selected at the same time, linked layers stay linked when you change the selection in the Layers palette.

If you don’t see the desired results when using a tool or applying a command, you may not have the correct layer selected. Check the Layers palette to make sure that you’re working on the correct layer.

Group and ungroup layers
1. Select multiple layers in the Layers palette.
2. Do one of the following:
  • Choose Layer > Group Layers.
  • Alt-drag (Windows) or Option-drag (Mac OS) layers to the folder icon at the bottom of the Layers palette to group the layers.
3. To Ungroup the layers, select the group and choose Layer > Ungroup Layers.

Add layers to a group
Do one of the following:
  • Select the group in the Layers palette and click the New Layer button .
  • Drag a layer to the group folder.
  • Drag a group folder into another group folder. The group and all of its layers move.
  • Drag an existing group to the New Group button .
Link and unlink layers
You can link two or more layers or groups. Unlike multiple layers selected at the same time, linked layers retain their relationship until you unlink them. You can move or apply transformations to linked layers.

Select the layers or groups in the Layers palette.
Click the link icon at the bottom of the Layers palette.
To unlink layers do one of the following:
  • Select a linked layer, and click the link icon.
  • To temporarily disable the linked layer, Shift-click the Link icon for the linked layer. A red X appears. Shift-click the link icon to enable the link again.
  • Select the linked layers and click the Link icon. To select all linked layers, select one of the layers and then choose Layer > Select Linked Layers.
Rename a layer or group
As you add layers to an image, it’s helpful to give them names that reflect their content. Descriptive names make layers easy to identify in the palette.
Do one of the following:
  • Double-click the layer name or group name in the Layers palette, and enter a new name.
  • Press Alt (Windows) or Option (Mac OS), and double-click the layer (not its name or thumbnail) in the Layers palette. Enter a new name in the Name text box, and click OK.
  • Select a layer or group, and choose Layer Properties or Group Properties from the Layers menu or the Layers palette menu. Enter a new name in the Name text box, and click OK.
Assign a color to a layer or group
Color coding layers and groups helps you locate related layers in the Layers palette.

Do one of the following:
  • Select a layer or group, and choose Layer Properties or Group Properties from the Layers menu or the Layers palette menu.
  • For groups, press Alt (Windows) or Option (Mac OS), and double-click the layer (not its name or thumbnail) in the Layers palette.
  • Choose a color from the Color pop up menu, and click OK.
Rasterize layers
You cannot use the painting tools or filters on layers that contain vector data (such as type layers, shape layers, vector masks, or Smart Objects) and generated data (such as fill layers). However, you can rasterize these layers to convert their contents into a flat, raster image.

Select the layers you want to rasterize, choose Layer > Rasterize, and then choose an option from the submenu:
Type -Rasterizes the type on a type layer. It does not rasterize any other vector data on the layer.
Shape - Rasterizes a shape layer.
Fill Content - Rasterizes the fill of a shape layer, leaving the vector mask.
Vector Mask - Rasterizes the vector mask on a layer, turning it into a layer mask.
Smart Object - Converts a Smart Object into a raster layer.
Video - Rasterizes the current video frame to an image layer.
Layer - Rasterizes all vector data on the selected layers.
All Layers - Rasterizes all layers that contain vector and generated data.

Note: To rasterize linked layers, select a linked layer, choose Layer > Select Linked Layers, and then rasterize the selected layers.

Delete a layer or group
Deleting layers you no longer need reduces the size of your image file.

Select one or more layers or groups from the Layers palette.
Do one of the following:
  • To delete with a confirmation message, click the Delete icon. Alternatively, choose Layers > Delete > Layer or Delete Layer or Delete Group from the Layers palette menu.
  • To delete the layer or group without confirmation, drag it to the Delete icon, Alt-click (Windows) or Option-click (Mac OS) the Delete icon, or click the Delete key with the Move tool active.
  • To delete hidden layers, choose Layers > Delete > Hidden Layers.
To delete linked layers, select a linked layer, choose Layer > Select Linked Layers, and then delete the layers.

Export layers You can export all layers or visible layers to separate files.
Choose File > Scripts > Export Layers To Files.

Merge and stamp layers
When you have finalized the content of layers, you can merge them to reduce the size of your image files. When you merge layers, the data on the top layers replaces any data it overlaps on the lower layers. The intersection of all transparent areas in the merged layers remains transparent. You cannot use an adjustment layer or fill layer as the target layer for a merge.

In addition to merging layers, you can stamp them. Stamping allows you to merge the contents of more than one layer into a target layer while leaving the other layers intact. When you save a merged document, you cannot revert back to the unmerged state; the layers are permanently merged.

Specify opacity for a layer or group
A layer’s opacity determines to what degree it obscures or reveals the layer beneath it. A layer with 1% opacity appears nearly transparent, whereas one with 100% opacity appears completely opaque.

Note: You cannot change the opacity of a background layer or a locked layer. You can, however, convert a background layer into a regular layer, which does support transparency.

Select a layer or group in the Layers palette.
Do one of the following:
  • In the Layers palette, enter a value in the Opacity text box or drag the Opacity pop up slider.
  • Choose Layer > Layer Style > Blending Options. Enter a value in the Opacity text box or drag the Opacity pop up slider.
  • Select the Move tool and type a number indicating the percentage of opacity.

Note: To view blending options for a text layer, choose Layer > Layer Style > Blending Options, or choose Blending Options from the Add A Layer Style button at the bottom of the Layers palette menu.

Specify fill opacity for a layer
In addition to setting opacity, which affects any layer styles and blending modes applied to the layer, you can specify a fill opacity for layers. Fill opacity affects pixels painted in a layer or shapes drawn on a layer without affecting the opacity of any layer effects that have been applied to the layer.

For example, if your layer contains a drawn shape or text that uses a drop shadow layer effect, adjust the fill opacity to change the opacity of the shape or text itself without changing the opacity of the shadow.

Do one of the following:
  • In the Layers palette, enter a value in the Fill Opacity text box or drag the Fill Opacity pop up slider.
  • Double-click a layer thumbnail, choose Layer > Layer Style > Blending Options, and enter a value in the Fill Opacity text box or drag the Fill Opacity pop-up slider.
Note: To view blending options for a text layer, choose Layer > Layer Style > Blending Options, or choose Blending Options from the Add A Layer Style button at the bottom of the Layers palette. Enter a value in the Fill Opacity text box.

Specify a blending mode for a layer or group
A layer’s blending mode determines how its pixels blend with underlying pixels in the image. You can create a variety of special effects using blending modes.
By default, the blending mode of a layer group is Pass Through, which means that the group has no blending properties of its own. When you choose a different blending mode for a group, you effectively change the order in which the image components are put together. All of the layers in the group are put together first. The composite group is then treated as a single image and blended with the rest of the image using the selected blending mode. Thus, if you choose a blending mode other than Pass Through for the group, none of the adjustment layers or layer blending modes inside the group will apply to layers outside the group.

Note: There is no Clear blending mode for layers. In addition, the Color Dodge, Color Burn, Darken, Lighten, Difference, and Exclusion modes are unavailable for Lab images. Layer blending modes available for 32 bit files are Normal, Dissolve, Darken, Multiply, Linear Dodge (Add), Difference, Hue, Saturation, Color, and Luminosity.

1. Select a layer or group from the Layers palette.
2. Choose a blending mode:
  • From the Layers palette, choose an option from the Blend Mode pop up menu.
  • Choose Layer > Layer Style > Blending Options, and then choose an option from the Blend Mode pop up menu.
For a video on using blending modes, see www.adobe.com/go/vid0012.

Filling new layers with a neutral color
You can’t apply certain filters (such as the Lighting Effects filter) to layers with no pixels. Selecting Fill With (Mode)-Neutral Color in the New Layer dialog box resolves this problem by first filling the layer with a preset, neutral color. This invisible, neutral color is assigned according to the layer’s blending mode. If no effect is applied, filling with a neutral color has no effect on the remaining layers. The Fill With Neutral Color option is not available for layers that use the Normal, Dissolve, Hard Mix, Hue, Saturation, Color, or Luminosity modes.

Create a knockout
Knockout options let you specify which layers “punch through” to reveal content from other layers. For example, you can use a text layer to knock out a color adjustment layer and reveal a portion of the image using the original colors.

As you plan your knockout effect, you need to decide which layer will create the shape of the knockout, which layers will be punched through, and which layer will be revealed. If you want to reveal a layer other than the Background, you can place the layers you want to use in a group or clipping mask.

Farm logo with shallow knockout to Background layer

1. Do one of the following in the Layers palette:
  • To reveal the background, position the layer that will create the knockout above the layers that will be punched through, and make sure the bottom layer in the image is a Background layer. (Choose Layer > New > Background From Layer to convert a regular layer into a Background layer.)
  • To reveal a layer above the background, place the layers you want to punch through in a group. The top layer in the group will punch through the grouped layers to the next layer below the group. If you want to punch all the way through to the background, set the blending mode for the group to Pass Through (the default setting).
  • To reveal the base layer of a clipping mask, place the layers you want to use in a clipping mask. Make sure that the Blend Clipped Layers As Group option is selected for the base layer.
2. Select the top layer (the layer that will create the knockout).
3. To display blending options, either double-click the layer (anywhere outside the layer name or thumbnail), choose Layer > Layer Style > Blending Options, or choose Blending Options from the Layers palette menu.

Note: To view blending options for a text layer, choose Layer > Layer Style > Blending Options, or choose Blending Options from the Add A Layer Style button at the bottom of the Layers palette menu.

4. Choose an option from the Knockout pop up menu:
1. Select Shallow to knock out to the first possible stopping point, such as the first layer after the layer group or the base layer of the clipping mask.
2. Select Deep to knock out to the background. If there is no background, Deep knocks out to transparency.

Note: If you are not using a layer group or clipping mask, either Shallow or Deep creates a knockout that reveals the background layer (or transparency, if the bottom layer is not a background layer).

3. To create the knockout effect, do one of the following:
  • Lower the fill opacity.
  • Using the choices in the Blend Mode menu, change the blending mode to reveal the underlying pixels.
4. Click OK.

Exclude channels from blending
You can restrict blending effects to a specified channel when you blend a layer or group. By default, all channels are included. When using an RGB image, for example, you can choose to exclude the red channel from blending; in the composite image, only the information in the green and blue channels is affected.

Do one of the following:
Double-click a layer thumbnail.
  • Choose Layer > Layer Style > Blending Options.
  • Choose Blending Options from the Add A Layer Style button at the bottom of the Layers palette.
Note: To view blending options for a text layer, choose Layer > Layer Style > Blending Options, or choose Blending Options from the Add A Layer Style button at the bottom of the Layers palette menu.

From the Advanced Blending area of the Layer Style dialog box, deselect any channels you do not want to include when the layer is blended.

Group blend effects
By default, layers in a clipping mask are blended with the underlying layers using the blending mode of the bottommost layer in the group. However, you can choose to have the blending mode of the bottommost layer apply only to that layer, allowing you to preserve the original blending appearance of the clipped layers.

You can also apply the blending mode of layer to layer effects that modify opaque pixels, such as Inner Glow or Color Overlay, without changing layer effects that modify only transparent pixels, such as Outer Glow or Drop Shadow.

1. Select the layer that you want to affect.
2. Double-click a layer thumbnail, choose Blending Options from the Layers palette menu, or choose Layer > Layer Style > Blending Options.

Note: To view blending options for a text layer, choose Layer > Layer Style > Blending Options, or choose Blending Options from the Add A Layer Style button at the bottom of the Layers palette menu.

3. Specify the scope of blending options:
  • Select Blend Interior Effects As Group to apply the blending mode of the layer to layer effects that modify opaque pixels, such as Inner Glow, Satin, Color Overlay, and Gradient Overlay.
  • Select Blend Clipped Layers As Group to apply the blending mode of the base layer to all layers in the clipping mask. Deselecting this option, which is always selected by default, maintains the original blending mode and appearance of each layer in the group.

Advanced blending options

A. Farm Logo and Paint Stroke layers, each with its own blending mode.
B. Blend Interior Effects As Group option selected.
C. Blend Clipped Layers As Group option selected.
  • Select Transparency Shapes Layers to restrict layer effects and knockouts to opaque areas of the layer. Deselecting this option, which is always selected by default, applies these effects throughout the layer.
  • Select Layer Mask Hides Effects to restrict layer effects to the area defined by the layer mask.
  • Select Vector Mask Hides Effects to restrict layer effects to the area defined by the vector mask.

4. Click OK.

About layer effects and styles
Photoshop provides a variety of effects—such as shadows, glows, and bevels—that change the appearance of a layer’s contents. Layer effects are linked to the layer contents. When you move or edit the contents of the layer, the same effects are applied to the modified contents. For example, if you apply a drop shadow to a text layer and then add new text, the shadow is added automatically to the new text.

A layer style is one or more effects applied to a layer or layer group. You can apply one of the preset styles provided with Photoshop or create a custom style using the Layer Styles dialog box. The layer effects icon appears to the right of the layer’s name in the Layers palette. You can expand the style in the Layers palette to view or edit the effects that compose the style.

Layers palette showing layer with multiple effects applied

A. Layer effects icon. B. Click to expand and show layer effects. C. Layer effects.

When you save a custom style, it becomes a preset style. Preset styles appear in the Styles palette and can be applied to a layer or group with a single click.

Apply preset styles
You can apply preset styles from the Styles palette. The layer styles that come with Photoshop are grouped into libraries by function. For example, one library contains styles for creating web buttons; another library contains styles adding effects to text. To access these styles, you need to load the appropriate library. For information on loading and saving styles.

Note: You cannot apply layer styles to a background, locked layer, or group.

Layer Styles dialog box overview

You can edit styles applied to a layer or create new styles using the Layer Styles dialog box.

Layer Styles dialog box. Click a check box to apply the current settings without displaying the effect’s options. Click an effect name to display its options.

You can create custom styles using one or more of the following effects:
Drop Shadow - Add a shadow that falls behind the contents on the layer.
Inner Shadow - Add a shadow that falls just inside the edges of the layer’s content, giving the layer a recessed appearance.
Outer Glow and Inner Glow - Add glows that emanate from the outside or inside edges of the layer’s content.
Bevel and Emboss - Add various combinations of highlights and shadows to a layer.
Satin - Applies interior shading that creates a satiny finish.
Color, Gradient, and Pattern Overlay - Fills the layer’s content with a color, gradient, or pattern.
Stroke - Outlines the object on the current layer using color, a gradient, or a pattern. It is particularly useful on hard-edged shapes such as type.

Apply or edit a custom layer style

Note:
You cannot apply layer styles to a background layer, a locked layer, or a group. To apply a layer style to a background layer, first convert it into a regular layer.

1. Select a single layer from the Layers palette.
2. Do one of the following:
  • Double-click the layer, outside the layer name or thumbnail.
  • Click the Layer Styles button at the bottom of the Layers palette and choose an effect from the list.
  • Choose an effect from the Layer > Layer Style submenu.
  • To edit an existing style, double-click an effect displayed below the layer name in the Layers palette. (Click the triangle next to the “fx” icon to display the effects contained in the style.)
1. Set effect options in the Layer Style dialog box.
2. Add other effects to the style, if desired. In the Layer Style dialog box, click the check box to the left of the effect name to add the effect without selecting it.

You can edit multiple effects without closing the Layer Style dialog box. Click the name of an effect on the left side of the dialog box to display its options.

Layer style options
Altitude
For the Bevel and Emboss effect, sets the height of the light source. A setting of 0 is equivalent to ground level, 90 is directly above the layer.
Angle
Determines the lighting angle at which the effect is applied to the layer. You can drag in the document window to adjust the angle of a Drop Shadow, Inner Shadow, or Satin effect.
Anti-alias
Blends the edge pixels of a contour or gloss contour. This option is most useful on shadows with a small size and complicated contour.
Blend Mode
Determines how the layer style blends with the underlying layers, which may or may not include the active layer. For example, an inner shadow blends with the active layer because the effect is drawn on top of that layer, but a drop shadow blends only with the layers beneath the active layer. In most cases, the default mode for each effect produces the best results. See List of blending modes.
Choke
Shrinks the boundaries of the matte of an Inner Shadow or Inner Glow prior to blurring.
Color
Specifies the color of a shadow, glow, or highlight. You can click the color box and choose a color.
Contour
With solid color glows, Contour allows you to create rings of transparency. With gradient-filled glows, Contour allows you to create variations in the repetition of the gradient color and opacity. In beveling and embossing, Contour allows you to sculpt the ridges, valleys, and bumps that are shaded in the embossing process. With shadows, Contour allows you to specify the fade. For more information, see Modify layer effects with contours.
Distance
Specifies the offset distance for a shadow or satin effect. You can drag in the document window to adjust the offset distance.
Depth
Specifies the depth of a bevel. It also specifies the depth of a pattern.
Use Global Light
This setting allows you to set one “master” lighting angle that is then available in all the layer effects that use shading: Drop Shadow, Inner Shadow, and Bevel and Emboss. In any of these effects, if Use Global Light is selected and you set a lighting angle, that angle becomes the global lighting angle. Any other effect that has Use Global Light selected automatically inherits the same angle setting. If Use Global Light is deselected, the lighting angle you set is “local” and applies only to that effect. You can also set the global lighting angle by choosing Layer Style > Global Light.
Gloss Contour
Creates a glossy, metallic appearance. Gloss Contour is applied after shading a bevel or emboss.
Gradient
Specifies the gradient of a layer effect. Click the gradient to display the Gradient Editor, or click the inverted arrow and choose a gradient from the pop up palette. You can edit a gradient or create a new gradient using the Gradient Editor. You can edit the color or opacity in the Gradient Overlay palette the same way you edit them in the Gradient Editor. For some effects, you can specify additional gradient options. Reverse flips the orientation of the gradient, Align With Layer uses the bounding box of the layer to calculate the gradient fill, and Scale scales the application of the gradient. You can also move the center of the gradient by clicking and dragging in the image window. Style specifies the shape of the gradient.
Highlight or Shadow Mode
Specifies the blending mode of a bevel or emboss highlight or shadow.
Jitter
Varies the application of a gradient’s color and opacity. Layer Knocks Out Drop Shadow
Controls the drop shadow’s visibility in a semitransparent layer.
Noise
Specifies the number of random elements in the opacity of a glow or shadow. Enter a value or drag the slider.
Opacity
Sets the opacity of the layer effect. Enter a value or drag the slider.
Pattern
Specifies the pattern of a layer effect. Click the pop up palette and choose a pattern. Click the New preset button to create a new preset pattern based on the current settings. Click Snap To Origin to make the origin of the pattern the same as the origin of the document (when Link With Layer is selected), or to place the origin at the upper left corner of the layer (if Link With Layer is deselected). Select Link With Layer if you want the pattern to move along with the layer as the layer moves. Drag the Scale slider or enter a value to specify the size of the pattern. Drag a pattern to position it in the layer; reset the position by using the Snap To Origin button. The Pattern option is not available if no patterns are loaded.
Position
Specifies the position of a stroke effect as Outside, Inside, or Center.
Range
Controls which portion or range of the glow is targeted for the contour.
Size
Specifies the amount of blur or the size of the shadow.
Soften
Blurs the results of shading to reduce unwanted artifacts.
Source
Specifies the source for an inner glow. Choose Center to apply a glow that emanates from the center of the layer’s content, or Edge to apply a glow that emanates from the inside edges of the layer’s content.
Spread
Expands the boundaries of the matte prior to blurring.
Style
Specifies the style of a bevel: Inner Bevel creates a bevel on the inside edges of the layer contents; Outer Bevel creates a bevel on the outside edges of the layer contents; Emboss simulates the effect of embossing the layer contents against the underlying layers; Pillow Emboss simulates the effect of stamping the edges of the layer contents into the underlying layers; and Stroke Emboss confines embossing to the boundaries of a stroke effect applied to the layer. (The Stroke Emboss effect is not visible if no stroke is applied to the layer.)
Technique
Smooth, Chisel Hard, and Chisel Soft are available for bevel and emboss effects; Softer and Precise apply to Inner Glow and Outer Glow effects.
Smooth
Blurs the edges of a matte slightly and is useful for all types of mattes, whether their edges are soft or hard. It does not preserve detailed features at larger sizes.
Chisel Hard
Uses a distance measurement technique and is primarily useful on hard-edged mattes from anti-aliased shapes such as type. It preserves detailed features better than the Smooth technique.
Chisel Soft
Uses a modified distance measurement technique and, although not as accurate as Chisel Hard, is more useful on a larger range of mattes. It preserves features better than the Smooth technique.
Softer
Applies a blur and is useful on all types of mattes, whether their edges are soft or hard. At larger sizes, Softer does not preserve detailed features.
Precise
Uses a distance measurement technique to create a glow and is primarily useful on hard-edged mattes from anti-aliased shapes such as type. It preserves features better than the Softer technique.

Texture
Applies a texture. Use Scale to scale the size of the texture. Select Link With Layer if you want the texture to move along with the layer as the layer moves. Invert inverts the texture. Depth varies the degree and direction (up/down) to which the texturing is applied. Snap To Origin makes the origin of the pattern the same as the origin of the document (if Link With Layer is deselected) or places the origin in the upper left corner of the layer (if Link With Layer is selected). Drag the texture to position it in the layer.

Modify layer effects with contours
When you create custom layer styles, you can use contours to control the shape of Drop Shadow, Inner Shadow, Inner Glow, Outer Glow, Bevel and Emboss, and Satin effects over a given range. For example, a Linear contour on a Drop Shadow causes the opacity to drop off in a linear transition. Use a Custom contour to create a unique shadow transition.

You can select, reset, delete, or change the preview of contours in the Contour pop up palette and Preset Manager.

Detail of Layer Style dialog box for Drop Shadow effect

A. Click to display the Contour Editor dialog box.
B. Click to display the pop up palette.

Set a global lighting angle for all layers
Using global light gives the appearance of a common light source shining on the image.

Do one of the following:
  • Choose Layer > Layer Style > Global Light. In the Global Light dialog box, enter a value or drag the angle radius to set the angle and altitude, and click OK.
  • In the Layer Style dialog box for Drop Shadow, Inner Shadow, or Bevel, select Use Global Light. For Angle, enter a value or drag the slider, and click OK.
  • The global lighting applies to each layer effect that uses the global lighting angle.
Display or hide layer styles

When a layer has a style, an “fx” icon appears to the right of the layer’s name in the Layers palette.

Create and manage preset styles
You can create a custom style and save it as a preset, which is then available from the Styles palette. You can save preset styles in a library and load or remove them from the Styles palette as you need them.

Copy layer styles
Copying and pasting styles is an easy way to apply the same effects to multiple layers.

Convert a layer style to image layers
To customize or fine-tune the appearance of layer styles, you can convert the layer styles to regular image layers. After you convert a layer style to image layers, you can enhance the result by painting or applying commands and filters. However, you can no longer edit the layer style on the original layer, and the layer style no longer updates as you change the original image layer.

Note: The layers produced by this process may not result in artwork that exactly matches the version using layer styles. You may see an alert when you create the new layers.

1. In the Layers palette, select the layer containing the layer style that you want to convert.
2. Choose Layer > Layer Style > Create Layers.

You can now modify and restack the new layers in the same way as regular layers. Some effects—for example, Inner Glow—convert to layers within a clipping mask.

You can also drag a layer style to the New Layer button at the bottom of the Layers palette to generate a new layer from an existing style.

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PRINT and RESOLUTION

Change the print dimensions and resolution
When creating an image for print media, it’s useful to specify image size in terms of the printed dimensions and the image resolution. These two measurements, referred to as the document size, determine the total pixel count and therefore the file size of the image; document size also determines the base size at which an image is placed into another application. You can further manipulate the scale of the printed image using the Print command; however, changes you make using the Print command affect only the printed image, not the document size of the image file.

If you turn on resampling for the image, you can change print dimensions and resolution independently (and change the total number of pixels in the image). If you turn off resampling, you can change either the dimensions or the resolution—Photoshop adjusts the other value automatically to preserve the total pixel count. For the highest print quality, it’s generally best to change the dimensions and resolution first, without resampling. Then resample only as necessary.

1. Choose Image > Image Size.
2. Change the print dimensions, image resolution, or both:
  • To change only the print dimensions or only the resolution and adjust the total number of pixels in the image proportionately, select Resample Image and then choose an interpolation method.
  • To change the print dimensions and resolution without changing the total number of pixels in the image, deselect Resample Image.
3. To maintain the current ratio of image width to image height, select Constrain Proportions. This option automatically changes the width as you change the height, and vice versa.
4. Under Document Size, enter new values for the height and width. If desired, choose a new unit of measurement. Note that for Width, the Columns option uses the width and gutter sizes specified in the Units & Rulers preferences.
5. For Resolution, enter a new value. If desired, choose a new unit of measurement.

To restore the initial values displayed in the Image Size dialog box, hold down Alt (Windows) or Option (Mac OS), and click Reset.

Determine a suggested resolution for an image
If you plan to print your image using a halftone screen, the range of suitable image resolutions depends on the screen frequency of your output device. Photoshop can determine a recommended image resolution based on the screen frequency of your output device.

Note: If your image resolution is more than 2.5 times the screen ruling, an alert message appears when you try to print the image. This means that the image resolution is higher than necessary for the printer. Save a copy of the file, and then reduce the resolution.

1. Choose Image > Image Size.
2. Click Auto.
3. For Screen, enter the screen frequency for the output device. If necessary, choose a different unit of measurement. Note that the screen value is used only to calculate the image resolution, not to set the screen for printing.

Note: To specify the halftone screen ruling for printing, you must use the Halftone Screens dialog box, accessible through the Print command.

4. For Quality, select an option:
Draft - Produces a resolution that is the same as the screen frequency (no lower than 72 pixels per inch).
Good - Produces a resolution 1.5 times the screen frequency.
Best - Produces a resolution 2 times the screen frequency.

View the print size on screen
Do one of the following:
  • Choose View > Print Size.
  • Select the Hand tool or Zoom tool, and click Print Size in the options bar.
The image is redisplayed in its approximate printed size, as specified in the Document Size area of the Image Size dialog box. The size and resolution of your monitor affect the on screen print size.

Change the canvas size
The canvas size is the full editable area of an image. The Canvas Size command lets you increase or decrease an image’s canvas size. Increasing the canvas size adds space around an existing image. Decreasing an image’s canvas size crops into the image. If you increase the canvas size of an image with a transparent background, the added canvas is transparent. If the image doesn’t have a transparent background, there are several options for determining the color of the added canvas.

1. Choose Image > Canvas Size.
2. Do one of the following:
  • Enter the dimensions for the canvas in the Width and Height boxes. Choose the units of measurement you want from the pop up menus next to the Width and Height boxes.
  • Select Relative, and enter the amount you want to add or subtract from the image’s current canvas size. Enter a positive number to add to the canvas, and enter a negative number to subtract from the canvas.
3. For Anchor, click a square to indicate where to position the existing image on the new canvas.
4. Choose an option from the Canvas Extension Color menu:
1. Foreground to fill the new canvas with the current foreground color
2. Background to fill the new canvas with the current background color
3. White, Black, or Gray to fill the new canvas with that color
4. Other to select a new canvas color using the Color Picker
Note: You can also click the white square to the right of the Canvas Extension Color menu to open the Color Picker.
5. The Canvas Extension Color menu isn’t available if an image doesn’t contain a background layer.
6. Click OK.


Original canvas and canvas added to right side of image using the foreground color

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